For a Tulsa commercial contractor there is a myriad of equipment that can be used on a construction site. Just for piling equipment there are several different pieces of equipment. For vertical pile drivers the American Institute for Constructors says the following:
Steel and precast concrete piles are commonly installed by pile drivers. A pile driver is a mechanical piece of equipment that drives a piling into the ground by striking the head of the piling. Following are three common types of pile drivers:
• Drop hammer pile driver: simplest type of pile driver. A drop hammer pile driver consists of a heavy weight that is raised by cable along a guided track and then dropped freely onto the head of the pile.
• Mechanical hammer pile driver: uses a mechanical actuated piston and hammer to drive pile into the ground. The piston may be powered by internal combustion, steam, compressed air, or hydraulics.
• Vibratory hammer pile driver: rapidly vibrates the head of the pile in up-and-down cycles while placing downward pressure, which causes the soil and piling to expand and contract, relieving friction and driving the piling downward. Typically, this is the fastest type of pile driver; however, the vibration from this equipment may disturb adjacent soils, especially those of nearby open excavations…’’
A Tulsa commercial contractor might also jetting equipment for vertical pile driving. This is what the AIC says about jetting equipment:
“… Pile Jetting Equipment
Pile jetting uses pipes to deliver concentrated jets of water or air to loosen the soil directly beneath the piling, relieving friction and driving the piling downward. Pile jetting equipment may be used with or separate from other pile driving equipment and can be used to install most wood, steel, or precast concrete piles. Specialty metal and precast piles may also be manufactured with built-in piping for pile jetting…”
This doesn’t eliminate a common type of vertical pile for the Tulsa commercial contractor where the hole is dug and concrete is poured to form the pile. The AIC describes that pile in the following manner:
Cast-in-place concrete piles are often drilled using pile drillers. Pile drillers utilize a large steel auger to bore a hole into the ground that can then be filled with concrete. Steel or composite casing may also be placed using pipe drillers for soils incapable of maintaining the bored hole without collapse or where risk of the soil contaminating the concrete is high…”
There are 3 types of horizontal piles for the Tulsa commercial contractor, and they are Sheet Piling, Cofferdams, and tiebacks. The is how the AIC defines those horizontal pilings:
“…SHEET PILINGS, COFFERDAMS, AND TIEBACKS
Sheet pilings, cofferdams, and tiebacks are commonly used in construction to stabilize the sides of open excavations and work areas.
Unlike pile foundations, which are intended for vertical loads, sheet piles are designed to stabilize the sides of open excavations by resisting the lateral pressure of soil and water. Sheet piles are typically used in a system or series of interconnecting piles. Sheet piles interlock to one another along their vertical joints and are installed in a manner similar to that used for other piles, often by pile driver. The depth and length of the sheet pile are determined by the amount of the pressure to be resisted. Sheet piles may be installed temporarily or designed to remain permanently in place.
Cofferdams are temporary enclosures primarily used to hold back water for activities requiring a dry work area. Commonly used in bridge construction, cofferdams may be large or small and constructed in a variety of ways. Earthen embankments are the simplest method of constructing a cofferdam but are often limited in use because of the large area required and susceptibility of deterioration caused by moving water. Cofferdams are more commonly constructed using sheet piles with structural bracing or a combination of earthen embankments with sheet pilings. Sheet piling cofferdams are constructed by driving sheet piles through water or mud and into stable soil below, forming a watertight, boxlike or circular structure. Once sheet piles are in place, they are structurally braced, and the water is pumped out. If needed, stone and/or concrete can be placed in the bottom to provide additional lateral support and/or a firm working surface
A tieback bracing system is an external bracing system that uses metal rods or wires anchored into rock or soil outside of an excavation to support the face of an excavation. The main advantage of tieback bracing systems is that they provide larger clear work areas within the excavation than internally braced systems do. Tiebacks are typically installed at an angle and are either driven or drilled and grouted into place. They may individually anchor metal plates or wood sheets, be used in rows with wales and planks or sheeting, or be used to provide support for other protection systems, such as sheet piling and concrete slurry walls. Tieback bracing systems are commonly used in urban areas where excavation for a building extends to the edge of the property…”
Depending on the type of pile depends on the type of equipment. If a cofferdam is used then dewatering equipment maybe required. The Tulsa commercial contractor will spend a great deal of time dewatering a site during the spring and early summer. The AIC describes dewatering and the equipment used as follows:
“…Dewatering is the process of removing ground- or surface water so that construction activities can take place. Dewatering is
especially important when excavating because water can accumulate in trenches, which may make placing concrete or utilities or performing other activities impossible. The water is removed by using pumps. Positive displacement pumps create a vacuum internally and are used for low-volume applications. Centrifugal pumps are commonly used for open water with high concentrations of debris and trash. Hydraulic submersible pumps use hydraulics to power the pumps and are ideal when the pump can’t be physically placed near the water source. An important consideration when creating the site logistics plan is where the water will be discharged. Often the water will have silts, clays, and other Tulsa Commercial Contractor contaminates, requiring that it must be treated before it can be returned to the water table. Treatment may include filters, buffers, or temporary settlement ponds. The location of the filtering area should be included in the site logistics plan. The contractor should also take care not to create excessive soil erosion with the discharge water…”
These processes and equipment are the very beginning of equipment used by the contractor during the construction process.